UPSC Main Examination 2023

General Studies Paper – III (17th September 2023)

Model Answer

  1. Faster economic growth requires increased share of the manufacturing sector in GDP, particularly of MSMEs. Comment on the present policies of the Government in this regard.

Answer. Manufacturing plays a crucial role in India’s economic landscape, serving as a catalyst for growth and self-reliance. Its significance can be attributed to several compelling reasons:

  1. Employment Generation: Manufacturing is a major source of employment, offering livelihoods to a significant portion of the population, including both skilled and unskilled labor. This helps reduce unemployment rates and alleviate poverty.
  2. GDP Contribution: The manufacturing sector substantially contributes to India’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP). A thriving manufacturing industry drives higher GDP growth rates, thereby raising living standards and funding essential social and infrastructure development programs.
  3. Exports and Trade Balance: Manufacturing often focuses on export-oriented production, which can significantly boost exports. This contributes to foreign exchange earnings and helps balance the trade deficit. Initiatives like “Make in India” aim to promote manufacturing and increase exports.
  4. Innovation and Technology: Manufacturing encourages the adoption and development of advanced technologies and innovative processes. It fosters research and development activities, leading to improved products, increased efficiency, and global competitiveness.
  5. Supply Chain and Ancillary Industries: Manufacturing creates a vast network of suppliers, distributors, and ancillary industries, contributing to the overall economic ecosystem. These supply chains generate additional employment opportunities and stimulate growth in related sectors.
  6. Infrastructure Development: Manufacturing often necessitates the development of critical infrastructure such as transportation, logistics, and energy supply. These investments benefit not only the manufacturing sector but also support the broader economy.
  7. Global Competitiveness: A robust manufacturing sector enables a nation to compete on a global scale. It allows for the production of high-quality goods that can be sold domestically and internationally, improving the country’s standing in the global market.
  8. Reduced Import Dependency: A strong manufacturing sector reduces a country’s reliance on imported goods, making the economy more self-sufficient and resilient to global market fluctuations.

The Production-Linked Incentive (PLI) scheme, part of India’s “Make in India” and “Atma Nirbhar Bharat” strategy to bolster manufacturing, complements these advantages:

  1. Sector-Specific Focus: The PLI scheme targets 14 key sectors of strategic and economic importance. By offering incentives and support to industries like electronics, automobiles, pharmaceuticals, and more, it encourages investments in areas where India has the potential to become a global leader.
  2. Investment Promotion: The PLI scheme encourages companies to expand their manufacturing capabilities by investing in plant, machinery, equipment, R&D, and technology transfer. The government reciprocates with incentives over a specified period, tailored to the unique needs of each sector.
  3. Positive Impact: Early results of the PLI scheme have demonstrated encouraging trends in various sectors. For instance, large-scale electronics manufacturing has attracted substantial investments, contributing significantly to production and exports.
  4. Job Creation: The scheme’s success has the potential to double the existing workforce across various sectors, addressing unemployment and improving livelihoods.

In conclusion, manufacturing, coupled with the PLI scheme, is pivotal in driving India’s economic growth, fostering self-reliance, and positioning the country as a global manufacturing hub. This synergy between manufacturing’s intrinsic benefits and the targeted approach of the PLI scheme forms the backbone of India’s economic development strategy, striving to achieve a $5 trillion economy and creating a more resilient and prosperous future.

  1. What is the status of digitalization in the Indian economy? Examine the problems faced in this regard and suggest improvement.

Ans.: India has made significant strides in digitizing its economy, with several prominent digital initiatives shaping the landscape. Here’s an overview of these initiatives and their current status, along with associated challenges and potential improvements:

  1. UPI (Unified Payments Interface)
  • Current Status: UPI has revolutionized digital payments in India, with billions of monthly transactions.
  • Challenges: Transaction failures, frauds, and security concerns.
  • Improvements: Enhancing security measures and infrastructure to reduce transaction failures and frauds.
  1. Aadhaar
  • Current Status: Aadhaar has provided a digital identity to the majority of the population, facilitating government and financial services.
  • Challenges: Privacy and data security concerns.
  • Improvements: Strengthening data protection frameworks and addressing privacy concerns through robust legislation.
  1. CBDC (Central Bank Digital Currency)
  • Current Status: RBI is working on introducing a digital currency alongside the Indian Rupee, with pilot projects launched.
  • Challenges: Potential impacts on the traditional banking system and digital security concerns.
  • Improvements: Developing a secure and stable digital currency framework that complements the existing financial ecosystem.
  1. IndiaStack
  • Current Status: IndiaStack is a digital infrastructure leveraging digital identity, paperless, and cashless components.
  • Challenges: Underutilization and limited awareness.
  • Improvements: Promoting adoption among businesses and startups, encouraging innovation.
  1. Digital India and E-Governance
  • Current Status: The Digital India initiative focuses on e-Governance and digital empowerment.
  • Challenges: Digital divide, cybersecurity concerns.
  • Improvements: Enhancing rural digital infrastructure, promoting digital literacy, strengthening cybersecurity measures.
  1. Gati Shakti
  • Current Status: Gati Shakti aims to create integrated infrastructure leveraging digital technologies.
  • Challenges: Practical implementation challenges, bureaucratic hurdles, land acquisition issues.
  • Improvements: Foster collaboration, streamline bureaucratic processes, leverage technology for efficient project management.
  1. National Logistics Policy 2023
  • Current Status: The policy emphasizes technology-driven solutions for the logistics sector.
  • Challenges: Implementation complexities.
  • Improvements: Effective implementation of technology-driven solutions, ensuring seamless logistics operations.
  1. Digital Agriculture Mission (DAM) 2021-2025
  • Current Status: DAM aims to support agritech startups addressing agricultural challenges through technology.
  • Challenges: Ensuring effective utilization of technology in agriculture.
  • Improvements: Continued support for agritech startups, promoting technological innovation in agriculture.

These digital initiatives reflect India’s commitment to harnessing technology for economic development, governance, and infrastructure improvement. Addressing associated challenges and fostering innovation and adoption will be crucial for their long-term success and impact on the Indian economy.

  1. How does e-Technology help farmers in production and marketing of agricultural produce? Explain it.

Ans.: E-Technology Revolutionizing Indian Agriculture: A Technological Renaissance

Introduction: In a nation where agriculture has been the bedrock of livelihood for a significant population, the fusion of technology and farming, spearheaded by startups, is scripting a new chapter in India’s traditional agriculture narrative.

Significance of Agriculture in India’s Economy: Agriculture, contributing nearly 16% to India’s GDP and employing nearly half of its workforce, stands as the backbone of the nation’s economy. Yet, this colossal industry grapples with multifaceted challenges.

Challenges in Indian Agriculture: Indian farmers face an array of challenges, from understanding complex market dynamics to adopting modern farming practices. These hurdles encompass inadequate infrastructure, unpredictable weather patterns, and outdated agricultural techniques.

Digital Agriculture Mission (DAM) 2021-2025: Recognizing technology’s potential to address these issues, the government launched the Digital Agriculture Mission in 2021. DAM showcases the government’s unwavering commitment to bolster agritech startups that utilize advanced technologies to tackle pressing agricultural problems.

How E-Technology Helps Farmers in Production and Marketing: E-Technology, as facilitated by agritech startups, has brought about transformative changes:

  1. Digitalization & Data Analytics: Harnessing AI, ML, and remote sensing, these startups enable data-driven farming, empowering farmers to make informed decisions, resulting in higher yields and better crop quality.
  2. Farm Management: User-friendly apps and platforms empower farmers to plan sowing schedules, manage pests, and optimize irrigation methods effortlessly.
  3. Market Access: Startups democratize market access, connecting farmers directly with buyers, ensuring fair pricing, and eliminating middlemen.
  4. Supply Chain Enhancement: An optimized supply chain minimizes wastage and ensures timely market access, ultimately bolstering farmers’ profitability.
  5. Precision Agriculture: Precision in input application leads to improved resource management, cost savings, and enhanced yields.
  6. Financial Solutions: Financial inclusion through easy credit solutions, insurance, and digital payments bridges the gap between rural India and fintech solutions.
  7. Smart Equipment: Drones, automated machinery, and IoT devices revolutionize farming, making it more efficient and less labor-intensive.
  8. Sustainable Practices: Startups promote organic and eco-friendly farming methods, championing sustainability.
  9. Training Initiatives: Agritech startups disseminate knowledge to the remotest farmers through digital training modules and workshops.
  10. Inclusivity: By targeting smallholder and marginalized farmers, startups ensure that technology’s benefits reach everyone.

Government’s Role in Supporting Startups: The Indian government actively extends support through tax benefits, the promotion of tech tools like Kisan drones, and collaboration with farmer-producer organizations, demonstrating the synergy between policymaking and agritech innovations.

Conclusion: The rise of agritech startups in India is more than just a business trend; it signifies a transformative journey reinvigorating traditional farming. It ensures food security and paves the way for a sustainable and prosperous future for India’s agrarian landscape.

  1. State the objectives and measures of land reforms in India. Discuss how land ceiling policy on landholding can be considered as an effective reform under economic criteria.

Ans.: Objectives and Measures of Land Reforms in India:

Objectives of Land Reforms in India:

  1. Redistribution of Land: The primary objective of land reforms was to address the issue of unequal land distribution and reduce landlessness among the rural population. This aimed to provide land to the landless and marginal farmers, thereby reducing poverty and improving rural livelihoods.
  2. Tenancy Reforms: To protect the rights of tenants and sharecroppers, tenancy reforms were introduced. This included providing them with security of tenure, fair rents, and safeguards against arbitrary eviction, ensuring that tenants could benefit from their agricultural efforts.
  3. Consolidation of Land Holdings: Land consolidation aimed to reorganize fragmented landholdings into larger, more viable units. This helped in efficient land use, reducing the problem of scattered and uneconomical land parcels.
  4. Land to the Scheduled Castes and Tribes: Another significant objective was to provide land to the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes to uplift their socio-economic status and reduce caste-based discrimination.
  5. Eradication of Feudalism: Land reforms also sought to abolish feudal and intermediary landholdings, ensuring that the actual cultivators had direct ownership or control over the land.

Measures of Land Reforms:

  1. Land Redistribution: Excess land from landlords was acquired by the government and distributed among landless and marginal farmers. Land ceilings were established to limit the maximum landholding that an individual or family could possess.
  2. Abolition of Intermediaries: Zamindari and other intermediary systems were abolished to eliminate the exploitative rent-seeking class between the government and the cultivators.
  3. Tenancy Reforms: Legislation protected the rights of tenants and sharecroppers, ensuring fair rents, security of tenure, and safeguards against eviction.
  4. Land Consolidation: Land consolidation projects were initiated to reorganize fragmented landholdings into larger, more efficient units.
  5. Land to Scheduled Castes and Tribes: Specific provisions were made to allocate land to Scheduled Castes and Tribes.

Land Ceiling Policy as an Effective Reform:

Land ceiling policies, a critical component of land reforms, can be considered effective under economic criteria for several reasons:

  1. Redistribution of Land: By imposing a maximum limit on landholdings, land ceiling policies ensure that excess land is redistributed to landless and marginal farmers, promoting a more equitable distribution of agricultural resources.
  2. Enhanced Productivity: Smaller and fragmented landholdings often lead to inefficient land use. Land consolidation resulting from land ceiling policies allows for better planning and adoption of modern farming techniques, thereby increasing agricultural productivity.
  3. Reduced Rural Poverty: Land ceiling policies aim to reduce income disparities in rural areas by providing land to those who need it most. This helps in poverty alleviation and improves the economic condition of the rural poor.
  4. Encouragement of Investment: Smaller landholdings often discourage farmers from making long-term investments in agriculture. Land ceiling policies provide farmers with a sense of security and encourage them to invest in land development and modernization.
  5. Prevention of Land Concentration: Without land ceiling policies, land tends to concentrate in the hands of a few wealthy individuals or families, perpetuating inequality. Land ceilings prevent such concentration and promote social justice.
  6. Promotion of Agricultural Growth: By ensuring that land is distributed more equitably, land ceiling policies contribute to agricultural growth, which is vital for overall economic development in agrarian economies like India.

In conclusion, land ceiling policies as part of land reforms in India have been instrumental in addressing historical land inequalities, improving agricultural productivity, reducing rural poverty, and promoting economic growth in rural areas. They have played a pivotal role in achieving economic objectives related to land redistribution and more equitable landownership.

  1. Introduce the concept of Artificial Intelligence (AI). How does Al help clinical diagnosis? Do you perceive any threat to privacy of the individual in the use of AI in healthcare?

Ans.: Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a field of computer science that focuses on creating machines and systems capable of performing tasks that typically require human intelligence, such as problem-solving, learning, and decision-making. AI technologies aim to simulate human-like thinking and actions in machines. Here’s how AI contributes to clinical diagnosis:

  1. Predictive Analytics: AI can analyze vast amounts of patient data, including medical history, genetics, and lifestyle factors, to identify patterns and trends. This enables healthcare professionals to predict the likelihood of diseases or health issues in patients.
  2. Image Analysis: In radiology and medical imaging, AI-powered algorithms can analyze medical images (e.g., X-rays, MRIs, CT scans) with high accuracy and speed. This aids in early disease detection, such as identifying cancerous tumors.
  3. Natural Language Processing (NLP): AI-driven NLP technology can parse and understand unstructured medical data, such as doctor’s notes and patient records. This helps healthcare providers extract valuable insights and make more informed decisions.
  4. Telemedicine: AI facilitates remote patient monitoring through wearable devices and sensors. This allows healthcare professionals to track patients’ health in real-time and intervene when necessary, reducing the need for frequent in-person appointments.
  5. Drug Discovery: AI expedites the drug discovery process by analyzing vast chemical databases and predicting potential drug candidates. This can significantly accelerate the development of new treatments.
  6. Personalized Medicine: AI can analyze a patient’s genetic makeup and health data to tailor treatment plans. Personalized medicine ensures that treatments are more effective and have fewer side effects.

However, AI in healthcare also poses certain threats to individual privacy:

  1. Data Breaches: The collection and storage of sensitive health data increase the risk of data breaches. Hackers may target healthcare systems to access patients’ personal information.
  2. Misuse of Data: Health data collected for medical purposes may be used for marketing, insurance assessments, or other non-medical purposes without patients’ consent.
  3. Bias: AI systems may inherit biases from their training data, potentially leading to unfair outcomes, particularly in diagnostic algorithms.
  4. Depersonalization of Care: An over-reliance on AI can reduce the personal touch and human understanding in healthcare, potentially impacting patient experiences.
  5. Consent: Patients may not fully understand how their health data is being used, raising concerns about informed consent.

To harness the benefits of AI while safeguarding privacy, healthcare providers and AI developers must work together to implement robust security measures, ethical guidelines, and transparent data practices. In conclusion, AI has immense potential to revolutionize healthcare and clinical diagnosis, but responsible and ethical use is paramount to ensure patient privacy and data security.

  1. Discuss several ways in which microorganisms can help in meeting current fuel shortage.

Ans.: Microorganisms indeed offer promising solutions to address current fuel shortages and promote sustainability in energy production. Here’s a closer look at how they can play a pivotal role:

  1. Bioethanol Production:
  • Yeast and Bacteria: Microorganisms, particularly yeast and bacteria, are essential in the fermentation process for converting sugars from plants (such as sugarcane and corn) into bioethanol. Bioethanol is a renewable and eco-friendly fuel alternative that can be blended with gasoline.
  1. Biodiesel Production:
  • Algae: Certain species of microalgae can accumulate lipids (oils) that can be extracted and processed into biodiesel. Algae-based biodiesel is a sustainable and carbon-neutral fuel source, offering a cleaner alternative to traditional diesel.
  1. Biogas Production:
  • Anaerobic Bacteria: Microbes, especially anaerobic bacteria, are crucial in breaking down organic matter in the absence of oxygen. This process generates biogas, primarily composed of methane and carbon dioxide. Biogas can be used for heating, electricity generation, and as a vehicle fuel.
  1. Biohydrogen Production:
  • Photosynthetic Bacteria and Algae: Certain microorganisms, like photosynthetic bacteria and algae, can produce hydrogen gas through biological processes. Biohydrogen is a promising renewable energy source and a potential clean fuel.
  1. Microbial Fuel Cells:
  • Electrogenic Bacteria: Electrogenic bacteria play a key role in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). These cells can generate electricity directly from organic and inorganic substances. MFCs offer a novel way to produce sustainable energy, particularly in wastewater treatment and bioelectricity generation.
  1. Enhanced Oil Recovery:
  • Microbes: Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) involves the use of microorganisms to enhance oil extraction from reservoirs. Certain microbes can change the properties of oil, making it easier to recover. This approach can help maximize existing fuel resources.
  1. Carbon Capture and Utilization:
  • Microalgae: Microalgae can be employed to capture carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrial emissions. The captured CO2 can then be used in photosynthesis to produce biomass or biofuels, helping reduce greenhouse gas emissions while generating fuel.
  1. Biomass Conversion:
  • Fungi and Bacteria: Microbes, including fungi and bacteria, can break down complex biomass materials (such as crop residues and wood) into simpler molecules. These simpler molecules can then be converted into various biofuels, including bioethanol and biodiesel.
  1. Waste-to-Energy Conversion:
  • Microorganisms: Microbes play a critical role in waste-to-energy processes like anaerobic digestion. They can convert organic waste materials, such as food waste and sewage sludge, into biogas or other forms of energy, offering an effective waste management solution while producing energy.

Harnessing the potential of microorganisms in these diverse ways not only helps address fuel shortages but also contributes to environmental sustainability by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and promoting circular economy practices. These innovations align with efforts to transition towards cleaner and more renewable sources of energy, ultimately shaping a greener and more sustainable future.

  1. Dam failures are always catastrophic, especially on the downstream side, resulting in a colossal loss of life and property. Analyze the various causes of dam failures. Give two examples of large dam failures.

Ans.: Dam failures indeed have devastating consequences, leading to loss of life and massive property damage, especially in the downstream areas. Here are various causes of dam failures, followed by two examples of significant dam failures in India:

Causes of Dam Failures:

  1. Structural Failures:
    • Poor Design: Inadequate design that cannot withstand the water pressure.
    • Material Failure: Use of substandard construction materials leading to structural weaknesses.
  2. Natural Disasters:
    • Earthquakes: Seismic activity causing damage to the dam structure.
    • Landslides: Landslides can block spillways and lead to overtopping.
  3. Operational Errors:
    • Overfilling: Filling the dam beyond capacity can result in overtopping.
    • Improper Maintenance: Lack of regular maintenance causing structural deterioration.
  4. Hydrological Factors:
    • Flash Floods: Sudden floods increasing water levels and pressure.
    • Erosion: Continuous erosion weakening the dam structure.

Examples of Large Dam Failures in India:

  1. Machchu Dam Failure (1979):
    • Location: Morbi, Gujarat
    • Cause: Excessive rainfall and flooding leading to overtopping.
    • Consequences: Massive loss of life and extensive property damage.
  2. Mullaperiyar Dam Controversies (Ongoing):
    • Location: Kerala-Tamil Nadu border
    • Cause: Ongoing concerns over the dam’s aging structure and its ability to withstand natural disasters.
    • Consequences: Although not a failure, the dam remains a subject of controversy, with ongoing disputes regarding safety and environmental impacts.

These examples emphasize the need for rigorous safety measures, regular maintenance, and continuous monitoring of dam structures. Additionally, it’s essential to address concerns promptly, especially for older dams, and to collaborate between relevant authorities to ensure the safety and integrity of dams to prevent catastrophic failures.

  1. What is oil pollution? What are its impacts on the marine ecosystem? In what way is oil pollution particularly harmful for a country like India?

Ans.: Oil pollution is the release of oil substances, encompassing petroleum and other oil types, into the environment, specifically marine ecosystems. This contamination can result from various sources such as oil spills, land runoff, ship discharges, and drilling mishaps.

Impacts on the Marine Ecosystem:

  1. Biodiversity Loss:
    • Marine Life: Oil pollution can directly harm marine species, including fish, birds, and mammals, through poisoning.
  2. Habitat Destruction:
    • Coral Reefs and Seagrass Beds: Critical marine habitats can be suffocated and contaminated by oil, leading to the degradation of ecosystems.
  3. Food Chain Disruption:
    • Bioaccumulation: Oil pollutants can accumulate in organisms, affecting various species throughout the food chain, including humans.
  4. Reproductive Issues:
    • Breeding Grounds: Oil pollution can contaminate breeding grounds, resulting in reproductive failures and population declines.

Oil Pollution in India’s Context: India boasts an extensive coastline spanning over 7,500 kilometers, teeming with rich biodiversity and providing sustenance for a substantial portion of the population through fisheries and marine-related activities. This renders oil pollution particularly detrimental to a country like India due to the following reasons:

  1. Economic Impact:
    • Fisheries and Tourism: Oil pollution can severely impact these sectors, leading to economic losses and disruptions in livelihoods.
  2. Biodiversity:
    • Unique Ecosystems: India hosts distinctive marine ecosystems such as mangroves and coral reefs, which are especially susceptible to the effects of oil pollution.
  3. Health Hazards:
    • Coastal Communities: Individuals residing along the coast may encounter health issues stemming from the consumption of seafood contaminated with oil pollutants.
  4. Legal and Diplomatic Issues:
    • Maritime Boundaries: Oil pollution disregards maritime boundaries, potentially resulting in disputes with neighboring countries.

Efforts to mitigate the impact of oil pollution in marine environments must encompass stringent regulations, proactive response mechanisms, and international cooperation to preserve marine ecosystems, biodiversity, and the well-being of coastal communities.

  1. Winning of ‘Hearts and Minds’ in terrorism-affected areas is an essential step in restoring the trust of the population. Discuss the measures adopted by the Government in this respect as part of the conflict resolution in Jammu and Kashmir.

Ans.: Gaining the trust and support of the population, particularly in regions affected by terrorism, plays a pivotal role in conflict resolution in Jammu and Kashmir. This entails establishing credibility, addressing grievances, and fostering an environment in which people feel safe and valued. Below are government measures implemented to achieve these objectives, as indicated in the provided information:

  1. Development Initiatives: Substantial investments in infrastructure development, encompassing power projects, tunnels, and highways, have been undertaken. This not only enhances overall living standards but also generates employment and economic prospects for the local populace, thus alleviating poverty and disaffection.
  2. Education and Healthcare: The establishment of prestigious educational and healthcare institutions like AIIMS, IIT, IIM, and NIFT plays a critical role in providing access to high-quality education and healthcare services. This demonstrates the government’s dedication to the well-being and future prospects of the people.
  3. Security Measures: Government efforts to combat narco-terrorism and arms smuggling contribute significantly to bolstering security. A secure environment fosters trust and support for governmental initiatives among the local population.
  4. Election Preparation: The completion of the delimitation process and the revision of electoral rolls are pivotal steps in ensuring equitable and inclusive elections. This enables enhanced political representation and participation, granting the people a voice in regional governance.
  5. Dialogue and Conflict Resolution: In addition to infrastructure and security measures, dialogue and conflict resolution endeavors are crucial. The government may engage in negotiations with various stakeholders, including separatist groups and civil society, to address underlying grievances and seek peaceful resolutions.
  6. Rehabilitation and Reintegration: Programs aimed at the rehabilitation and reintegration of former militants and their families facilitate their transition into mainstream society. These initiatives may encompass vocational training, education, and psychosocial support.
  7. Community Engagement: Fostering trust at the grassroots level involves actively involving local communities, understanding their needs, and including them in decision-making processes. This can be achieved through community development projects and local governance initiatives.
  8. Information Dissemination: Effective communication and timely information dissemination are imperative. The government must ensure that accurate and timely information reaches the population, countering rumors and misinformation that could contribute to mistrust and unrest.
  9. Human Rights Protections: Upholding human rights and ensuring that security forces operate within the framework of the law are crucial. Any violations of human rights can undermine trust and hinder reconciliation efforts.
  10. International Cooperation: Engaging with international organizations and neighboring countries to promote peace and stability in the region can also be an integral part of the strategy.

Earning the hearts and minds of the populace is a long-term endeavor necessitating a comprehensive approach that addresses not only security concerns but also the socioeconomic and political dimensions of the conflict. It entails cultivating a sense of ownership, inclusion, and optimism among the population in Jammu and Kashmir, ultimately contributing to a lasting resolution of the conflict.

  1. The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) by our adversaries across the borders to ferry arms/ammunitions, drugs, etc., is a serious threat to the internal security. Comment on the measures being taken to tackle this threat.

Ans.: The emerging issue of drone intrusions along the International Border (IB) between India and Pakistan, particularly in Punjab’s Amritsar sector, raises several key concerns:

  1. Chinese Drones: The intruding drones are described as advanced Chinese drones equipped with modern artificial intelligence features. These drones possess the capability to remain airborne for extended durations and operate at high altitudes.
  2. Origin and Operation: Typically, these drones take off from locations in Pakistan near Lahore, Kasur, and Sheikhpura. They are operated by smugglers based in Pakistan and are employed for the illicit transportation of drugs, arms, and ammunition into border areas of Punjab, India.
  3. Border Security Force (BSF) Response: The BSF has identified approximately 200 dropping zones along the Indian side of the International Border in Punjab. Security agencies have been actively countering these drone intrusions and have successfully shot down 26 unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) while detecting 165 of them within the first six months of the year.
  4. Operational Details: These drones are typically operated during the night, between 10 pm to 4 am, to avoid detection. They are flown at altitudes ranging from 1,500 to 2,000 meters but are lowered to 700 meters when delivering cargo. GPS coordinates from across the border are fed into the drones to ensure precise delivery of contraband.
  5. Payload and Drone Models: These drones have a payload capacity of 5-7 kg, which includes narcotics and small weapons. Some of the drones are manufactured by a Chinese firm named DJI, with a specific model mentioned as the Matrice 300, known for its reliability and precision in payload delivery. It can carry up to 2.7 kg and has a flight time of 55 minutes.
  6. Data Security: The operator of these drones from across the border possesses the ability to remotely erase all data from the device once it is either shot down or seized, rendering it challenging to track their flight history.
  7. Forensic Analysis: To address these concerns, the BSF has established a forensic laboratory for drones in Delhi. This laboratory extracts data from the chips of seized drones, enabling the study of flight paths and other scientific details.
  8. International Origin: It has been determined through forensic analysis that some of the drones have originated from China. Flight history traces these drones back to specific regions in both China and Pakistan.
  9. Recent Incident: An incident is cited where a drone carrying 6 kg of narcotics departed from Lahore and crashed near Rasoolpura village in Pakistan.

These drone intrusions pose a significant security challenge, and authorities are actively taking measures to counter them. These measures include the deployment of technological solutions and the use of forensic analysis to ascertain their origin and flight patterns, enhancing border security in the region.

  1. Most of the unemployment in India is structural in nature. Examine the methodology adopted to compute unemployment in the country and suggest improvements.

Ans.: Structural unemployment arises due to a fundamental mismatch between the skills possessed by the labor force and the evolving demands of the job market, primarily driven by technological advancements such as computers, robotics, and artificial intelligence (AI). As automation and digitalization reshape industries, certain job roles become obsolete, while new, specialized skills are in high demand. This transition often results in workers with outdated skills facing unemployment, presenting a persistent challenge. Effective solutions to this issue include the implementation of robust workforce retraining programs, educational initiatives tailored to emerging industries, and the formulation of policies that facilitate the adaptation of the labor force to the changing job landscape. Addressing structural unemployment is essential to ensure sustainable economic growth and provide opportunities in the era of technological disruption.

Methodology for Calculating Unemployment in India (PLFS):

  1. Sample Surveys: The PLFS conducts extensive sample surveys to collect data on employment and unemployment, including information related to labor force participation and demographics.
  2. Reference Period: It employs a one-year reference period with successive rounds to account for seasonal variations in employment and unemployment data.
  3. Key Indicators: The PLFS computes critical labor market indicators such as the Labor Force Participation Rate (LFPR), Worker Population Ratio (WPR), and Unemployment Rate.
  4. Categorization: Unemployment is categorized into Open Unemployment (individuals actively seeking employment) and Disguised Unemployment (low-productivity, surplus labor).

Suggestions for Improvement:

  1. Frequency: Increase the frequency of surveys, conducting them quarterly, to capture real-time employment dynamics.
  2. Granular Data: Gather more detailed data concerning the skills possessed by job seekers and the specific job requirements of industries, facilitating improved skill-matching analysis.
  3. Geographical Detail: Provide more comprehensive geographical data to address regional variations in unemployment patterns.
  4. Expanded Definitions: Include underemployment and discouraged workers in the definition of unemployment to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the labor market.
  5. Informal Sector: Enhance data collection methods in the informal sector, where a significant portion of employment exists.
  6. Technology: Utilize technological tools such as mobile apps and online surveys for efficient data collection.
  7. Longitudinal Studies: Implement longitudinal studies to track employment trends over time.
  8. Skill Development: Develop targeted skill development programs based on the data collected to bridge the skills gap.
  9. Policy Integration: Integrate employment data with other socio-economic indicators to gain a holistic view for policymaking.
  10. Collaboration: Foster collaboration among government agencies, academic institutions, and research organizations to enhance data analysis and inform evidence-based policymaking.

Enhancing the methodology for computing unemployment can provide policymakers with more accurate and timely data to effectively address the challenges associated with structural unemployment. This, in turn, contributes to improved labor market outcomes and supports overall economic growth.

  1. Distinguish between ‘care economy’ and ‘monetized economy’. How can care economy be brought into monetized economy through women empowerment?


  1. Care Economy:
    • The “care economy” encompasses unpaid care and domestic work, including childcare, elderly care, household chores, and emotional support. These activities are typically carried out within households and communities without monetary compensation.
    • The care economy plays a crucial role in supporting families and individuals by providing essential care services.
  2. Monetized Economy:
    • The “monetized economy” or formal economy comprises economic activities involving the production, distribution, and exchange of goods and services for monetary compensation.
    • This sector primarily includes paid employment, businesses, trade, and transactions within the formal market economy. It is characterized by financial transactions and profit-driven production of goods and services.
  3. Incorporating the Care Economy into the Monetized Economy through Women’s Empowerment:
      1. Recognition and Valuation: Recognize the economic and social value of unpaid care work within national accounting systems.
      2. Flexible Work Opportunities: Establish part-time jobs or telecommuting options to assist women in balancing paid work with caregiving responsibilities.
      3. Education and Skills Training: Ensure women have access to vocational training and education to transition into monetized sectors.
      4. Childcare Services: Invest in affordable, high-quality childcare services to support working women.
      5. Work-Life Balance: Implement policies such as parental leave and flexible work hours to help women maintain their careers while fulfilling caregiving duties.
      6. Access to Finance: Facilitate women’s access to financial resources, such as microloans, to promote entrepreneurship.
      7. Women’s Entrepreneurship: Encourage women’s entrepreneurship in the care economy through financial and technical support.
      8. Gender Equality Advocacy: Advocate for gender equality to eliminate biases hindering women’s participation.
      9. Awareness and Advocacy: Raise awareness about women’s economic empowerment and their contributions to the care economy.
      10. Data Collection: Gather gender-disaggregated data to inform policymaking and program development.

Empowering women and integrating the care economy into the monetized economy fosters gender equality and enhances women’s economic opportunities, ultimately benefiting society as a whole.

  1. Explain the changes in cropping pattern in India in the context of charges in consumption pattern and marketing conditions.

Ans.: Changes in cropping patterns in India are influenced by shifts in consumption patterns and marketing conditions, which are driven by various factors such as population growth, urbanization, changing dietary preferences, and market demand. Here are some concrete examples of these changes:

  1. Shift towards Horticulture and High-Value Crops:

. Example: Mango cultivation in southern India has increased significantly due to rising demand for this fruit in domestic and international markets.

  • Explanation: As people’s dietary preferences change and incomes rise, there is a growing demand for fruits and vegetables. Farmers are shifting from traditional crops to high-value

horticultural crops to meet this demand and take advantage of better market prices. 2. Diversification into Cash Crops:

  • Example: In states like Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, farmers are increasingly cultivating cash crops like coffee and spices, which have strong export markets.
  • Explanation: Cash crops often offer better financial returns than staple crops. Farmers are diversifying their cropping patterns to include cash crops, driven by export opportunities and favorable market conditions.
  1. Transition from Food Crops to Livestock Feed:

. Example: In Punjab and Haryana, there has been a shift from wheat and rice cultivation to maize

and fodder crops for livestock.

⚫ Explanation: As the demand for milk and dairy products increases, farmers are growing more livestock feed to support the dairy industry. This shift is driven by changing consumption patterns as people consume more dairy products.

  1. Organic Farming and Specialty Crops:

. Example: Organic farming is gaining popularity in various regions of India, leading to increased cultivation of organic crops like organic rice, spices, and vegetables.

  • Explanation: Growing awareness about health and environmental concerns is influencing

consumption patterns. As consumers seek organic and specialty products, farmers are adapting

by transitioning to organic farming practices.

  1. Shift from Subsistence to Commercial Farming: Example: In parts of Madhya Pradesh, farmers are transitioning from subsistence farming of

traditional cereals to commercial farming of soybeans and pulses. • Explanation: Market conditions and government policies that support procurement of certain crops for commercial purposes have encouraged farmers to shift from subsistence to market-

oriented cropping patterns.

  1. Precision Agriculture and Technology Adoption:

. Example: In Punjab, the adoption of precision agriculture techniques and technology has led to the cultivation of high-yield varieties of rice.

. Explanation: Technology-driven changes in agriculture, such as the use of hybrid seeds, mechanization, and efficient irrigation systems, have influenced cropping patterns by enabling farmers to produce crops more suited to market demands and conditions.

  1. Climate-Resilient Crops:
  • Example: In drought-prone regions like Maharashtra, farmers are increasingly planting drought- resistant crops like millets.
  • Explanation: Climate change and unpredictable weather patterns have compelled farmers to adapt their cropping patterns by choosing crops that are better suited to local conditions and are resilient to climate-related challenges.

In summary, changes in cropping patterns in India are closely tied to evolving consumption patterns and market conditions. Farmers are adjusting their agricultural practices to meet the demands of consumers, capture profitable market opportunities, and respond to changing environmental and economic factors. These shifts play a vital role in India’s agricultural sector’s sustainability and resilience.

  1. What are the direct and indirect subsidies provided to farm sector in India? Discuss the issues raised by the World Trade Organization (WTO) in relation to agricultural subsidies.

Ans.: Changes in cropping patterns in India are shaped by shifts in consumption patterns and marketing conditions, which are influenced by various factors such as population growth, urbanization, changing dietary preferences, and market demand. Here are concrete examples of these changes:

  1. Transition to Horticulture and High-Value Crops:
    • Example: The cultivation of mangoes in southern India has witnessed a significant increase due to rising domestic and international demand for this fruit.
    • Explanation: With changing dietary preferences and increasing incomes, there is a growing consumer demand for fruits and vegetables. Farmers are transitioning from traditional crops to high-value horticultural crops to meet this demand and benefit from favorable market prices.
  2. Diversification into Cash Crops:
    • Example: In states like Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, farmers are increasingly cultivating cash crops such as coffee and spices, which have robust export markets.
    • Explanation: Cash crops often offer higher financial returns compared to staple crops. Farmers are diversifying their crop choices by including cash crops in response to export opportunities and favorable market conditions.
  3. Shifting from Food Crops to Livestock Feed:
    • Example: In Punjab and Haryana, there has been a shift from cultivating wheat and rice to maize and fodder crops for livestock.
    • Explanation: As the demand for milk and dairy products rises, farmers are allocating more land to grow livestock feed, supporting the dairy industry. This transition is driven by changing consumption patterns as dairy product consumption increases.
  4. Adoption of Organic Farming and Specialty Crops:
    • Example: Organic farming is gaining popularity in various regions of India, resulting in increased cultivation of organic crops like organic rice, spices, and vegetables.
    • Explanation: Growing awareness of health and environmental concerns is influencing consumer preferences. As consumers seek organic and specialty products, farmers are adapting by transitioning to organic farming practices.
  5. Shift from Subsistence to Commercial Farming:
    • Example: In parts of Madhya Pradesh, farmers are shifting from subsistence farming of traditional cereals to commercial farming of soybeans and pulses.
    • Explanation: Market conditions and government policies supporting the procurement of specific crops for commercial purposes have encouraged farmers to transition from subsistence-oriented cropping patterns to market-oriented ones.
  6. Embracing Precision Agriculture and Technology:
    • Example: In Punjab, the adoption of precision agriculture techniques and technology has led to the cultivation of high-yield varieties of rice.
    • Explanation: Technological advancements in agriculture, including hybrid seeds, mechanization, and efficient irrigation systems, have influenced cropping patterns. Farmers are producing crops that align better with market demands and local conditions due to these innovations.
  7. Adoption of Climate-Resilient Crops:
    • Example: In drought-prone regions like Maharashtra, farmers are increasingly planting drought-resistant crops such as millets.
    • Explanation: Climate change and unpredictable weather patterns have prompted farmers to adjust their crop choices. They are opting for crops that are better suited to local conditions and can withstand climate-related challenges.

In summary, changes in cropping patterns in India are closely intertwined with evolving consumption patterns and market dynamics. Farmers are adapting their agricultural practices to meet consumer demands, tap into profitable market opportunities, and respond to changing environmental and economic factors. These adaptations play a crucial role in enhancing the sustainability and resilience of India’s agricultural sector.

  1. The adoption of electric vehicles is rapidly growing worldwide. How do electric vehicles contribute to reducing carbon emissions and what are the key benefits they offer compared to traditions combustion engine vehicles?

Answer:  Electric vehicles (EVs) play a pivotal role in curbing carbon emissions and offer numerous advantages over conventional combustion engine vehicles:

  1. Carbon Emissions Reduction:
    • Zero Tailpipe Emissions: EVs produce no tailpipe emissions, operating solely on electricity that can be generated from renewable sources like wind, solar, or hydropower. This substantially cuts down carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the transportation sector.
    • Decreased Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The use of electricity as an EV power source is generally more energy-efficient than internal combustion engines. This heightened efficiency translates to lower greenhouse gas emissions throughout the vehicle’s lifespan, even when considering emissions from electricity generation.
  2. Key Electric Vehicle Advantages:
    • Enhanced Energy Efficiency: Electric motors boast high efficiency, converting a larger percentage of their energy source into vehicle propulsion. Conversely, internal combustion engines waste a significant portion of energy as heat.
    • Reduced Operating Costs: EVs feature fewer moving parts than traditional vehicles, leading to reduced maintenance expenses. They also benefit from lower electricity prices compared to gasoline or diesel fuel.
    • Quiet and Smooth Operation: EVs are renowned for their quiet and smooth operation, contributing to diminished noise pollution in urban areas.
    • Instant Torque: Electric motors deliver instant torque, resulting in swift acceleration and a highly responsive driving experience.
    • Diminished Fossil Fuel Dependence: EVs contribute to a decreased reliance on fossil fuels for transportation, thereby bolstering energy security and mitigating exposure to volatile oil prices.
    • Broader Environmental Benefits: EVs exhibit fewer environmental impacts during their lifecycle, including reduced air and water pollution during manufacturing and maintenance.
    • Facilitation of Renewable Energy: The adoption of EVs can stimulate investments in renewable energy infrastructure, such as charging stations powered by solar or wind energy.
    • Potential for Grid Integration: EVs can serve as a resource for grid stability and energy storage, supporting the integration of renewable energy sources and enhancing grid reliability.
    • Incentives and Tax Credits: Many governments offer incentives and tax credits to incentivize EV adoption, making them more affordable for consumers.
    • Ongoing Technological Advancements: Continuous advancements in EV technology, including extended battery ranges and rapid charging, continually enhance the attractiveness of EVs for consumers.

Overall, electric vehicles make a substantial contribution to reducing carbon emissions and deliver a wide array of economic, environmental, and performance benefits when compared to conventional combustion engine vehicles. As the global transition to EVs persists, their impact on emissions reduction and the promotion of sustainable transportation is expected to expand further.

  1. What is the main task if India’s third moon mission which could not be achieved on its earlier mission? List the countries that have achieved this task. Introduce the subsystems in the spacecraft launched and explain the role of the “Virtual Launch Control Centre’ at the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre which contributed to the successful launch from Sriharikota.

Ans.: Vikram’s Softlanding Chandrayaan-3, similar to Chandrayaan-2, aimed to achieve a gentle landing of a spacecraft on the Moon. Here’s an overview of how the process works:

  1. Lander Descent: After reaching the Moon’s orbit, the lander, named Vikram, separates from the main spacecraft and begins its descent to the lunar surface.
  2. Phases of Descent: The descent involves several distinct phases:
  1. Rough Braking: Initially, the lander reduces its speed significantly. b. Attitude Hold (Orientation): During this phase, the lander maintains a specific position. c. Fine Braking: Further reduction in speed is attempted. d. Landing: This is the final phase where the lander gently touches down on the Moon’s surface.
  1. Guidance and Control: Onboard computers and sensors play a crucial role in guiding the lander and making necessary adjustments during the descent to ensure a safe landing.
  2. Monitoring: Scientists and engineers on Earth closely monitor the entire descent process and can make real-time adjustments if needed to ensure a successful landing.
  3. Learning from Past: Chandrayaan-3 incorporated lessons learned from the Chandrayaan-2 mission. It implemented improvements in various systems to enhance the chances of a safe and successful landing.
  4. Successful Landing: The primary objective is for the lander to achieve a soft landing, avoiding a crash like what occurred with Chandrayaan-2.

Chandrayaan-3 is designed to address technical issues that led to the crash landing of Chandrayaan-2 and aims to achieve a successful soft landing on the Moon.

Components of Chandrayaan-3: Chandrayaan-3, India’s lunar mission, consists of three main components:

  1. Propulsion Module: This module, enclosed within the LVM3’s payload fairing, facilitated the journey to a 100-km lunar orbit. It includes a solar panel and structural elements required for the lander.
  2. Lander (Vikram): Vikram, responsible for executing a soft moon landing, houses various instruments for on-site analysis and carries the rover. It features improved landing capabilities and stronger impact legs compared to its predecessor, with a focus on landing in a precise region.
  3. Rover (Pragyan): Pragyan is a six-wheeled rover tasked with exploring the lunar surface, particularly focusing on its composition and the presence of water ice. The mission carries various payloads on both the lander and the rover to conduct experiments, including measuring lunar surface thermal conductivity, seismic activity, and analyzing the chemical and mineralogical composition of the lunar surface.

The Chandrayaan-3 mission represents ISRO’s advanced approach to lunar exploration, emphasizing precision and enhanced safety measures.

VLCC (Virtual Launch Control Centre): The Virtual Launch Control Centre (VLCC) located at the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) played a crucial role in the pre-launch preparations for the Chandrayaan-3 mission. It enabled remote execution of system checkouts on the LVM3 launch vehicle that carried the Chandrayaan-3 spacecraft.

Leading up to the scheduled launch on July 14 at 2:35 p.m., the VLCC remotely conducted system checkouts, verifying the functionality of various components such as electronics, actuators, and commands. These checks ensured that all systems operated correctly.

At 14 minutes and 30 seconds before liftoff, the launch vehicle entered the launch sequence, guided by its onboard computer. However, the final launch command was issued from Sriharikota, not the VLCC. The VLCC was designed to ensure the readiness of the launch vehicle for the mission by overseeing essential pre-launch checkouts.

India’s achievement with Chandrayaan-3 marked its inclusion in a select group of countries that have successfully executed controlled lunar landings, including the United States, the former Soviet Union, and China.

  1. Comment on the National Wetland Conservation Programme initiated by the Government of India and name a few India’s wetlands of international importance included in the Ramsar Sites.

Ans.: The National Wetland Conservation Programme (NWCP) was launched by the Government of India in the early 1980s with the aim of preserving wetlands that hold ecological, economic, and aesthetic significance. This initiative is in alignment with India’s commitment to the Ramsar Convention, an international treaty that was signed in Ramsar, Iran, in 1971, and to which India became a party on February 1, 1982.

Several wetlands in India have been designated as Ramsar Sites due to their importance, including:

  1. Chilika Lake (Odisha)
  2. Keoladeo National Park (Rajasthan)
  3. Loktak Lake (Manipur)
  4. Sundarbans Wetland (West Bengal)
  5. Sasthamkotta Lake (Kerala)
  6. Bhoj Wetland (Madhya Pradesh)
  7. Ropar Wetland (Punjab)
  8. Deepor Beel (Assam)

The impact of sea-level rise in the Indian Ocean region is a matter of concern for various countries, including India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Indonesia, and Mauritius:


  1. Agricultural Impact: Changes in weather patterns and saltwater intrusion could affect agriculture.
  2. Coastal Habitat Loss: Coastal habitats and their associated flora and fauna could be at risk.


  1. Land Loss: Significant land submersion may result in habitat and agricultural land loss.
  2. Mass Migration: The loss of habitable land could trigger large-scale migration.


  1. City Relocation: Accelerated plans for relocating the capital city might be necessary due to the threat of submersion.
  2. Economic Impact: Coastal regions, which are economic centers, might face disruptions.


  1. Biodiversity Threat: Rich biodiversity might be threatened due to habitat loss.
  2. Economic Impact: The economy, heavily reliant on tourism, might face challenges.

General Impacts:

  1. Humanitarian Crises: The region might experience humanitarian crises due to mass migrations and resource shortages.
  2. Political Conflicts: Resource scarcities could lead to political conflicts and territorial disputes.
  3. Economic Slowdown: The economies of these countries may experience a slowdown due to the impacts on various industries.

Mitigation and adaptation strategies in response to sea-level rise include:

  1. Coastal Defenses: Investing in coastal defenses such as seawalls and embankments to protect against sea-level rise.
  2. Sustainable Policies: Implementing policies that promote sustainable development and climate resilience.
  3. International Cooperation: Collaborating regionally to address transboundary issues arising from sea-level rise.

In conclusion, the projected sea-level rise poses a significant threat to India and other countries in the Indian Ocean region, necessitating urgent and coordinated efforts to mitigate its impacts. This topic is covered in textbooks, tests, and various handouts as part of educational materials.

  1. What are the internal security challenges being faced by India? Give out the role of Central Intelligence and Investigative Agencies tasked to counter such threats.

Answer : India confronts a multitude of internal security challenges, spanning from terrorism to cyber-attacks, and central intelligence and investigative agencies play a crucial role in mitigating these threats. Here’s an overview of these challenges and the roles these agencies undertake:

Internal Security Challenges:

  1. Terrorism and Insurgency:
    • Cross-border Terrorism: Infiltration of terrorists from neighboring countries.
    • Homegrown Terrorism: Radicalization and recruitment of individuals within the country.
    • Insurgencies: Found in regions like the Northeast and Left-Wing Extremism in central and eastern India.
  2. Cyber Security:
    • Cyber-attacks: Targeting government websites and critical infrastructure.
    • Data Theft: Unauthorized access and theft of sensitive data.
  3. Organized Crime:
    • Drug Trafficking: Smuggling of drugs and narcotics.
  4. Communal Violence:
    • Religious Conflicts: Conflicts arising from religious differences.
    • Ethnic Clashes: Clashes between different ethnic groups.
  5. Human Trafficking:
    • Human Trafficking: Illegal trafficking of humans for various purposes, including forced labor and prostitution.
  6. Economic Offenses:
    • Money Laundering: Illegal transfer and laundering of money.
    • Corruption: Misuse of power for personal gains.

Role of Central Intelligence and Investigative Agencies:

  1. Intelligence Bureau (IB):
    • Internal Intelligence: Gathering intelligence on internal security matters.
    • Counter-terrorism: Countering terrorist activities through intelligence operations.
  2. Research and Analysis Wing (RAW):
    • External Intelligence: Gathering intelligence on external threats and foreign espionage.
    • Counterintelligence: Countering threats from foreign intelligence agencies.
  3. Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI):
    • Investigations: Conducting investigations into high-profile crimes, including corruption and economic offenses.
    • Anti-Corruption: Leading anti-corruption initiatives and prosecuting individuals involved in corruption.
  4. National Investigation Agency (NIA):
    • Counter-Terrorism: Investigating and prosecuting terrorism-related offenses.
    • Counter-Insurgency: Countering insurgencies through intelligence-led operations.
  5. Cyber Crime Units:
    • Cyber Security: Ensuring the security of cyberspace through the prevention of cyber-attacks and data theft.
    • Investigations: Investigating cyber crimes and prosecuting offenders.
  6. Enforcement Directorate (ED):
    • Economic Offenses: Investigating economic offenses such as money laundering.
    • Asset Seizure: Seizing assets acquired through illegal means.

Conclusion: Central intelligence and investigative agencies stand as the vanguards of India’s internal security. They labor relentlessly to confront and neutralize the diverse range of security challenges that threaten the nation. Their multifaceted roles encompass intelligence gathering, investigations, and the enforcement of laws, often involving collaboration with various other agencies and international counterparts. The continual enhancement of these agencies’ capabilities is essential to effectively combat the ever-evolving threat landscape and safeguard the nation’s security.

  1. Give out the major sources of terror funding in India and the efforts being made to curtail these sources. In the light of this, also discuss the aim and objective of the No Money for Terror (NMFT)’ Conference recently held at New Delhi in November 2022.

Ans.: Sources and Efforts to Stop Terror Financing:


  1. Money Laundering: Involves the illegal transfer and concealment of funds derived from criminal activities.
  2. Drug Trafficking: Profits generated from the illicit drug trade.
  3. Hawala Transactions: An informal and unregulated system of money transfer, often used to fund terrorist activities.
  4. Funding through Non-Profit Organizations (NPOs): Misuse of NPOs to channel funds for terrorist activities.
  5. Kidnappings and Extortions: Raising funds through criminal activities such as kidnappings and extortions.
  6. Cyber Crime: Engaging in online frauds and scams to generate funds.
  7. Smuggling of Arms and Goods: Profits derived from the illegal trade of arms and goods.
  8. Cryptocurrencies: Utilizing digital currencies to facilitate anonymous transactions for funding terrorism.

Efforts to Curtail These Sources:

  1. Regulatory Oversight: Strengthening regulatory frameworks to monitor suspicious financial transactions and enforce anti-money laundering laws.
  2. Intelligence and Surveillance: Enhancing intelligence networks to detect and prevent terror financing activities.
  3. International Cooperation: Collaborating globally to trace and curb cross-border financial activities linked to terrorism, including sharing intelligence and freezing assets.
  4. Crackdown on Illegal Activities: Conducting targeted operations against smuggling, narcotics trade, and other illegal activities to choke financial channels supporting terrorism.
  5. Promotion of Financial Literacy: Educating the public about financial literacy to prevent individuals from unknowingly becoming part of terror financing networks.

The “No Money For Terror” (NMFT) initiative aims to foster international cooperation in countering terrorism financing. It seeks to identify and halt various channels of terror financing, including the misuse of new financial technologies and organized crimes linked to terrorism. The initiative encourages nations to collaboratively develop strategies to trace and target economic crimes and terminate sources of illegal funding, thereby promoting global peace and security. It also advocates for the establishment of a permanent secretariat to facilitate sustained focus and collaborative efforts in this direction.